Renewable Energy

A comprehensive review on biodiesel as an alternative energy resource and its characteristics

As the fossil fuels are depleting day by day, there is a need to find out an alternative fuel to fulfill the energy demand of the world. Biodiesel is one of the best available resources that have come to the forefront recently. In this paper, a detailed review has been conducted to highlight different related aspects to biodiesel industry. These aspects include, biodiesel feedstocks, extraction and production methods, properties and qualities of biodiesel, problems and potential solutions of using vegetable oil, advantages and disadvantages of biodiesel, the economical viability and finally the future of biodiesel. The literature reviewed was selective and critical. Highly rated journals in scientific indexes were the preferred choice, although other non-indexed publications, such as Scientific Research and Essays or some internal reports from highly reputed organizations such as International Energy Agency (IEA), Energy Information Administration (EIA) and British Petroleum (BP) have also been cited. Based on the overview presented, it is clear that the search for beneficial biodiesel sources should focus on feedstocks that do not compete with food crops, do not lead to land-clearing and provide greenhouse-gas reductions. These feedstocks include non-edible oils such as Jatropha curcas and Calophyllum inophyllum, and more recently microalgae and genetically engineered plants such as poplar and switchgrass have emerged to be very promising feedstocks for biodiesel production.
It has been found that feedstock alone represents more than 75% of the overall biodiesel production cost. Therefore, selecting the best feedstock is vital to ensure low production cost. It has also been found that the continuity in transesterification process is another choice to minimize the production cost. Biodiesel is currently not economically feasible, and more research and technological development are needed. Thus supporting policies are important to promote biodiesel research and make their prices competitive with other conventional sources of energy. Currently, biodiesel can be more effective if used as a complement to other energy sources.

Keywords
Biodiesel feedstock Extraction Production Properties and qualities Problems Advantages and disadvantages Economical viability Future of biodiesel


Review of biodiesel composition, properties, and specifications

Abstract
Biodiesel is a renewable transportation fuel consisting of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), generally produced by transesterification of vegetable oils and animal fats. In this review, the fatty acid (FA) profiles of 12 common biodiesel feedstocks were summarized. Considerable compositional variability exists across the range of feedstocks. For example, coconut, palm and tallow contain high amounts of saturated FA; while corn, rapeseed, safflower, soy, and sunflower are dominated by unsaturated FA. Much less information is available regarding the FA profiles of algal lipids that could serve as biodiesel feedstocks. However, some algal species contain considerably higher levels of poly-unsaturated FA than is typically found in vegetable oils.

Differences in chemical and physical properties among biodiesel fuels can be explained largely by the fuels’ FA profiles. Two features that are especially influential are the size distribution and the degree of unsaturation within the FA structures. For the 12 biodiesel types reviewed here, it was shown that several fuel properties – including viscosity, specific gravity, cetane number, iodine value, and low temperature performance metrics – are highly correlated with the average unsaturation of the FAME profiles. Due to opposing effects of certain FAME structural features, it is not possible to define a single composition that is optimum with respect to all important fuel properties. However, to ensure satisfactory in-use performance with respect to low temperature operability and oxidative stability, biodiesel should contain relatively low concentrations of both long-chain saturated FAME and poly-unsaturated FAME.

Keywords
Biodiesel Biodiesel composition Biodiesel properties Biodiesel specificationsFAME

A review of energy storage technologies for wind power applications

Abstract
Due to the stochastic nature of wind, electric power generated by wind turbines is highly erratic and may affect both the power quality and the planning of power systems. Energy Storage Systems (ESSs) may play an important role in wind power applications by controlling wind power plant output and providing ancillary services to the power system and therefore, enabling an increased penetration of wind power in the system. This article deals with the review of several energy storage technologies for wind power applications. The main objectives of the article are the introduction of the operating principles, as well as the presentation of the main characteristics of energy storage technologies suitable for stationary applications, and the definition and discussion of potential ESS applications in wind power, according to an extensive literature review.

Keywords
Wind power plantsEnergy Storage Systems


Techno-economic survey of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) systems

Abstract
New heat conversion technologies need to be developed and improved to take advantage of the necessary increase in the supply of renewable energy. The Organic Rankine Cycle is well suited for these applications, mainly because of its ability to recover low-grade heat and the possibility to be implemented in decentralized lower-capacity power plants.

In this paper, an overview of the different ORC applications is presented. A market review is proposed including cost figures for several commercial ORC modules and manufacturers. An in-depth analysis of the technical challenges related to the technology, such as working fluid selection and expansion machine issues is then reported. Technological constraints and optimization methods are extensively described and discussed. Finally, the current trends in research and development for the next generation of Organic Rankine Cycles are presented.

Keywords
Organic Rankine Cycle ORC Waste heat recovery Binary cycle Biomass Combined heat and power


A review of working fluid and expander selections for organic Rankine cycle

Abstract
How to effectively utilize low and medium temperature energy is one of the solutions to alleviate the energy shortage and environmental pollution problems. In the past twenty years, because of its feasibility and reliability, organic Rankine cycle has received widespread attentions and researches. In this paper, it reviews the selections of working fluids and expanders for organic Rankine cycle, including an analysis of the influence of working fluids’ category and their thermodynamic and physical properties on the organic Rankine cycle’s performance, a summary of pure and mixed working fluids’ screening researches for organic Rankine cycle, a comparison of pure and mixture working fluids’ applications and a discussion of all types of expansion machines’ operating characteristics, which would be beneficial to select the optimal working fluid and suitable expansion machine for an effective organic Rankine cycle system.

Keywords
Organic Rankine cycle Organic working fluids Expanders Mixed working fluids


Energy models for demand forecasting—A review

Abstract
Energy is vital for sustainable development of any nation – be it social, economic or environment. In the past decade energy consumption has increased exponentially globally. Energy management is crucial for the future economic prosperity and environmental security. Energy is linked to industrial production, agricultural output, health, access to water, population, education, quality of life, etc. Energy demand management is required for proper allocation of the available resources. During the last decade several new techniques are being used for energy demand management to accurately predict the future energy needs. In this paper an attempt is made to review the various energy demand forecasting models. Traditional methods such as time series, regression, econometric, ARIMA as well as soft computing techniques such as fuzzy logic, genetic algorithm, and neural networks are being extensively used for demand side management. Support vector regression, ant colony and particle swarm optimization are new techniques being adopted for energy demand forecasting. Bottom up models such as MARKAL and LEAP are also being used at the national and regional level for energy demand management.

Keywords
Energy models Forecasting model Energy demand management Econometric models Demand side management


A review on the prediction of building energy consumption

Abstract
The energy performance in buildings is influenced by many factors, such as ambient weather conditions, building structure and characteristics, the operation of sub-level components like lighting and HVAC systems, occupancy and their behavior. This complex situation makes it very difficult to accurately implement the prediction of building energy consumption. This paper reviews recently developed models for solving this problem, which include elaborate and simplified engineering methods, statistical methods and artificial intelligence methods. Previous research work concerning these models and relevant applications are introduced. Based on the analysis of previous work, further prospects are proposed for additional research reference.

Keywords
PredictionBuildingEnergy consumptionEngineering methodsStatistical modelsArtificial intelligence


A review of energy sources and energy management system in electric vehicles

Abstract
The issues of global warming and depletion of fossil fuels have paved opportunities to electric vehicle (EV). Moreover, the rapid development of power electronics technologies has even realized high energy-efficient vehicles. EV could be the alternative to decrease the global green house gases emission as the energy consumption in the world transportation is high. However, EV faces huge challenges in battery cost since one-third of the EV cost lies on battery. This paper reviews state-of-the-art of the energy sources, storage devices, power converters, low-level control energy management strategies and high supervisor control algorithms used in EV. The comparison on advantages and disadvantages of vehicle technology is highlighted. In addition, the standards and patterns of drive cycles for EV are also outlined. The advancement of power electronics and power processors has enabled sophisticated controls (low-level and high supervisory algorithms) to be implemented in EV to achieve optimum performance as well as the realization of fast-charging stations. The rapid growth of EV has led to the integration of alternative resources to the utility grid and hence smart grid control plays an important role in managing the demand. The awareness of environmental issue and fuel crisis has brought up the sales of EV worldwide.

Keywords
Energy managementElectric vehicleHybrid electric vehicleSupervisory controlOptimizationDrive cycle


POLICIES FOR CARBON ENERGY FOOTPRINT REDUCTION OF OVERHEAD MULTIPLE-INPUT MULTIPLE-OUTPUT HIGH VOLTAGE BROADBAND OVER POWER LINES NETWORKS

ABSTRACT

The impact of different environmental policies on the broadband performance of overhead multiple-input multiple-output
high-voltage/broadband over power lines (MIMO/HV/BPL) networks is investigated in this paper. The examined environmental policies focus on the carbon energy footprint reduction of overhead MIMO/HV/BPL networks while respecting their broadband character.

The contribution of this paper is three-fold. First, the spectral and environmental performance of various configurations and topologies of overhead MIMO/HV/BPL networks is assessed with regard to respective spectral efficient (SE) and newly presented environmental efficient (EE) metrics. Second, further insights regarding the performance of overhead MIMO/HV/BPL networks highlight the better spectral and environmental performance of these networks against other today’s overhead HV/BPL networks, such as single-input single-output (SISO), single-input multiple-output (SIMO), or multiple-input single-output (MISO) ones. Third, the definition of appropriate environmental policies that optimize the coexistence of the three main sectors of concern, which are the Quality of Service (QoS) requirements, protection of existing radioservices and promotion of environmentally aware limits, is promoted. Towards that direction, the proposed SE/EE trade-off relation of this paper is expected to prove an extremely helpful SE/EE optimization technique.

Citation: Lazaropoulos, A. G. (2015). Policies for Carbon Energy Footprint Reduction of Overhead Multiple-Input Multiple-Output High Voltage Broadband over Power Lines Networks. Trends in Renewable Energy, 1(2), 87-118. DOI: 10.17737/tre.2015.1.2.0011
KEYWORDS

Broadband over Power Lines (BPL) modeling; modal analysis; Power Line Communications (PLC); overhead High-Voltage (HV) power lines; capacity; green technology